Oracle


How to drop corrupted PDB?

Today on my test system I did delete by mistake all the datafiles from one PDB on Oracle 12.1.0.2.

Then, when I wanted to drop it from the CDB, I was getting the error:

SQL> drop pluggable database PDB2_C2 including datafiles;
drop pluggable database PDB2_C2 including datafiles
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01116: error in opening database file 19
ORA-01110: data file 19: '/shared/oradata/NONRAC/PDB2_CLONE2/system01.dbf'
ORA-27041: unable to open file
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3

After I tried to see if RMAN would propose any solution, knowing that there were no backups or archivelogs.

RMAN> advise failure;

Database Role: PRIMARY

List of Database Failures
=========================

Failure ID Priority Status    Time Detected Summary
---------- -------- --------- ------------- -------
62         CRITICAL OPEN      16-NOV-15     System datafile 19: '/shared/oradata/NONRAC/PDB2_CLONE2/system01.dbf' is corrupt
22         CRITICAL OPEN      16-NOV-15     System datafile 19: '/shared/oradata/NONRAC/PDB2_CLONE2/system01.dbf' is missing

analyzing automatic repair options; this may take some time
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=31 device type=DISK
analyzing automatic repair options complete

Mandatory Manual Actions
========================
1. If file /shared/oradata/NONRAC/PDB2_CLONE2/system01.dbf was unintentionally renamed or moved, restore it
2. Contact Oracle Support Services if the preceding recommendations cannot be used, or if they do not fix the failures selected for repair
3. Please contact Oracle Support Services to resolve failure 62: System datafile 19: '/shared/oradata/NONRAC/PDB2_CLONE2/system01.dbf' is corrupt

Optional Manual Actions
=======================
no manual actions available

Automated Repair Options
========================
no automatic repair options available

With the help of my Trivadis colleague Daniele Massimi quickly we found the solution.
The CDB was now in mount mode.

$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Mon Nov 16 17:28:43 2015
Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle.  All rights reserved.
Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 1509949440 bytes
Fixed Size                  2924640 bytes
Variable Size             973082528 bytes
Database Buffers          520093696 bytes
Redo Buffers               13848576 bytes
Database mounted.
ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 19 - see DBWR trace file
ORA-01110: data file 19: '/shared/oradata/NONRAC/PDB2_CLONE2/system01.dbf'

SQL> alter database datafile 19 offline drop;
alter database datafile 19 offline drop
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01516: nonexistent log file, data file, or temporary file "19"

SQL> alter session set container=PDB2_C2;
Session altered.

SQL> alter database datafile 19 offline drop;
Database altered.

SQL> alter session set container=cdb$root;
Session altered.

SQL> alter database open;
Database altered.

SQL> drop pluggable database PDB2_C2 including datafiles;
Pluggable database dropped.

Moral of the story: be careful when deleting files. ūüôā


Install latest version of Oracle Goldengate 12

With Oracle Goldengate 12 there is now a big change on the way to install: there is an installer!

Up to Oracle Goldengate 11 every new patch was a new complete version. With Oracle Goldengate 12 you need to install a base version and then the latest patch.

Here is a quick sum up of the instructions (done on AIX, but is similar on Linux):

  1. From Oracle website download the Goldengate 12.1.2.1.0 for your operating system
  2. From Oracle support note 1645495.1 download the latest patchset for Goldengate. Check the availability for your OS.
  3. Unzip both downloaded files
  4. Call the <download_dir>/ggs_AIX_ppc_shiphome/Disk1/runInstaller
  5. Follow the instructions by choosing the target DB version and install directory (I recommend $ORACLE_BASE/product/gg)
  6. Oracle GoldenGate 12.1.2.1.0 - Install Wizard - Step 1 of 5

    Oracle GoldenGate 12.1.2.1.0 - Install Wizard - Step 2 of 5

    Oracle GoldenGate 12.1.2.1.0 - Install Wizard - Step 3 of 5

    Oracle GoldenGate 12.1.2.1.0 - Install Wizard - Step 4 of 5

    Oracle GoldenGate 12.1.2.1.0 - Install Wizard - Step 5 of 5

  7. Check it works
  8. # set ORACLE_HOME to an existing Oracle database installation:
    export ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/11.2.0.4
    
    # set LD_LIBRARY_PATH to use libraries from $ORACLE_HOME:
    export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:$ORACLE_BASE/product/gg
    
    # Start Goldengate:
    cd $ORACLE_BASE/product/gg
    ./ggsci
    
    Oracle GoldenGate Command Interpreter for Oracle
    Version 12.1.2.1.1 19797716 OGGCORE_12.1.2.1.1_PLATFORMS_141026.2215
    AIX 6, ppc, 64bit (optimized), Oracle 11g on Oct 27 2014 00:19:39
    Operating system character set identified as ISO-8859-1.
    
    Copyright (C) 1995, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
    
    GGSCI (anjovm1) 1> info all
    
    Program Status Group Lag at Chkpt Time Since Chkpt
    
    MANAGER STOPPED
    GGSCI (anjovm1) 2> exit
    
  9. Install the latest patchset with OPatch
  10. cd <download_dir>/21785294
    $ORACLE_BASE/product/gg/OPatch/opatch apply -oh $ORACLE_BASE/product/gg
    
    Invoking OPatch 11.2.0.1.7
    
    Oracle Interim Patch Installer version 11.2.0.1.7
    Copyright (c) 2011, Oracle Corporation.  All rights reserved.
    
    Oracle Home       : /oracle/app/product/gg121
    Central Inventory : /oracle/oraInventory
       from           : /etc/oraInst.loc
    OPatch version    : 11.2.0.1.7
    OUI version       : 11.2.0.3.0
    Log file location : /oracle/app/product/gg121/cfgtoollogs/opatch/opatch2015-11-11_08-32-55AM.log
    
    Applying interim patch '21785294' to OH '/oracle/app/product/gg121'
    Verifying environment and performing prerequisite checks...
    
    Do you want to proceed? [y|n] y
    User Responded with: Y
    All checks passed.
    
    Please shutdown Oracle instances running out of this ORACLE_HOME on the local system.
    (Oracle Home = '/oracle/app/product/gg121')
    
    Is the local system ready for patching? [y|n] y
    User Responded with: Y
    Backing up files...
    
    Patching component oracle.oggcore.ora11g, 12.1.2.1.0...
    Patch 21785294 successfully applied
    Log file location: /oracle/app/product/gg121/cfgtoollogs/opatch/opatch2015-11-11_08-32-55AM.log
    
    OPatch succeeded.
    
  11. Check it is updated
# Start Goldengate:
cd $ORACLE_BASE/product/gg
./ggsci

Oracle GoldenGate Command Interpreter for Oracle
Version 12.1.2.1.10 21604177 OGGCORE_12.1.2.1.0OGGBP_PLATFORMS_150902.1337
AIX 6, ppc, 64bit (optimized), Oracle 11g on Sep  2 2015 16:29:21
Operating system character set identified as ISO-8859-1.

Copyright (C) 1995, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

GGSCI (anjovm1) 1> 

We have now Oracle Goldengate 12.1.2.1.10 installed.

Interesting enough is that Oracle Goldengate 12.1 still uses the OPatch version 11.2.0.1.7, taken probably from Oracle 11.2.0.3, as we can see from the line “OUI version : 11.2.0.3.0”.


Oracle October 2015 CPU – quick and dirty install on 11.2.0.4 and 12.1.0.2 4

[Update 17.11.2015 – Thanks¬†Lars Johan Ulveseth for the extra testing and comment – see below. In fact I’ve only tested the PSU installation on a non-CDB 12c database. There is a missing step, added now, when you are in a multitenant configuration with pluggable databases. Script updated based on Lars comments.]

Following my January post, here are basic instructions to install the latest Oracle security patch. While one should always read the documentation, below you can find how to install CPU Oct 2015  on single instance. Please count about 5 minutes downtime on your database (a bit more if it is the first time you are doing this).

If you are single instance database (no RAC) and either 11.2.0.4 or 12.1.0.2 here are the quick summary of the installation. Tested on Linux and AIX:

Oracle 12.1.0.2 РOctober 2015 CPU installation

OPatch: You need to update the OPatch tool, minimum version is 12.1.0.1.7. Direct download from Oracle support.

Bundle 12.1.0.2 – Patch 21520444 –¬†Combo OJVM PSU 12.1.0.2.5 and Database PSU 12.1.0.2.5 for UNIX

  • Patch 21359755 – Database Patch Set Update 12.1.0.2.5 (Oct2015) –> RAC-Rolling Installable
  • Patch 21555660 – Oracle JavaVM Component 12.1.0.2.5 Database PSU (OCT2015) –> Non RAC-Rolling Installable
export PATCH_LOC="/tmp"

1. Download + Upgrade OPatch (Opatch download direct link)

unzip ${PATCH_LOC}/p6880880_121010_Linux-x86-64.zip -d $ORACLE_HOME

2. Stop database+listeners+agent

3. Apply DB PSU (21359755 ) but do NOT run DB PSU post install steps

cd ${PATCH_LOC}
unzip p2*
cd 2*
cd 21359755/
$ORACLE_HOME/OPatch/opatch apply

3. Apply OJVM PSU patch

cd ../21555660/
$ORACLE_HOME/OPatch/opatch apply

4. Restart database [and open pluggable databases] in upgrade mode

SQL> startup upgrade;
SQL> alter pluggable database all open upgrade;

5. Run post install steps

cd $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch
./datapatch -verbose

6. Restart database [and open pluggable databases] in normal mode

SQL> shutdown;
SQL> startup;
SQL> alter pluggable database all open;


Oracle 11.2.0.4 РOctober 2015 CPU installation

Bundle 11.2.0.4 – Patch 21744335 –¬†Combo OJVM PSU 11.2.0.4.5 and Database SPU 11.2.0.4 (CPUOct2015)

  • Patch 21352646 – Database Security Patch Update 11.2.0.4.0 (CPUOCT2015) –> RAC-Rolling Installable
  • Patch 21555791 – Oracle JavaVM Component 11.2.0.4.5 Database PSU (OCT2015) –> Non RAC-Rolling Installable
export PATCH_LOC="/tmp"
cd ${PATCH_LOC}
unzip p2*.zip
cd 2*

1. Shutdown databases and services
2. Apply DB PSU (21352646) but do NOT run DB PSU post install steps

cd 21352646
$ORACLE_HOME/OPatch/opatch napply -skip_subset -skip_duplicate

3. Apply OJVM PSU patch

cd ../21555791/
$ORACLE_HOME/OPatch/opatch apply

4. Run the OJVM PSU post install steps followed by the DB PSU (or equivalent) post install steps.

cd $ORACLE_HOME/sqlpatch/21555791
sqlplus / as sysdba 
SQL> startup upgrade
SQL> @postinstall.sql
SQL> shutdown immediate
SQL> exit;
cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin
$ sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> startup
SQL> @catbundle.sql cpu apply
SQL> @utlrp.sql
SQL> exit;

 


Oracle wallet on Windows registry – share with other users

I installed Oracle wallet to access passwordless to the remote databases, so I could do backups without specifying the password on any script.

The sqlnet.ora has the following information concerning the wallet:

WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE =
(METHOD = reg)
(METHOD_DATA = (KEY = DEFAULT)))

SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE = TRUE
SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION = FALSE

The other day, I got the need of giving access to remote databases to another windows user, so he could run a refresh schema/database script.

He was getting the following error when trying to access any database:

ORA-12578: TNS:wallet open failed

While I could just have set a different TNS_ADMIN variable pointing to a sqlnet.ora with

SQLNET.WALLET_OVERRIDE = FALSE

this was not the solution for him to use an automatic script.

The solution was to export/import the following branch of the registry from my windows user to the other windows user:

\\HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\WALLETS

Note that these entries contain the encrypted password to the wallet, allowing the user to add/remove/modify/see the contents, including passwords, of the current wallet.


Solution for slow login after installing Oracle Linux

After installing Oracle Linux on Virtualbox, I noticed that login in was quite slow. Between the time we enter the login and the moment it asks the password it takes a few seconds.

The solution was to disable the usage of reverse IP resolution on the ssh server.

It can be done by adding/changing the following line on /etc/ssh/sshd_config

UseDNS no

And restart the ssh deamon:

# service sshd restart
Stopping sshd:                                [ OK ]
Starting sshd:                                [ OK ]

Oracle 12.1.0.2 – ORA-600 [QERHJDISABLEHJCBK: NOT A HASH JOIN] on UPDATE

Surprises happen when you go to the latest version of Oracle without deep testing.
My client just hit the bug:
Bug 20513930 : UPDATE FAILS WITH [QERHJDISABLEHJCBK: NOT A HASH JOIN]

Basically the client was getting a ORA-600 [QERHJDISABLEHJCBK: NOT A HASH JOIN] when doing a certain query. Looking at it, it was an UPDATE of a view. This view had a “instead of update” trigger, which was doing several actions. After enabling trace on the session, the bug does not happen!

Fortunately someone had already open the bug at Metalink. The workaround is to disable the new “groundbreaking feature” (dixit Oracle) called Adaptive Plans.

SQL> alter system set "_optimizer_adaptive_plans"=false;
System altered.

Hopefully there will be soon a patch for this problem.


Oracle automatic maintenance, expdp and ORA-01466

At a client request I’ve implemented a daily consistent export of few schemas, using something like:

expdp "/ as sysdba" SCHEMAS=user1 dumpfile=export_%1_%datetime%.dmp logfile=export_%1_%datetime%.log flashback_time=systimestamp

I was set to run at 22:00 every night.

Next day the log showed some errors like:

ORA-31693: Table data object "USER1"."TABLE_TEST" failed to load/unload and is being skipped due to error:
ORA-02354: error in exporting/importing data
ORA-01466: unable to read data - table definition has changed

Looking closer, it was due to the automatic statistics collection, done within the daily maintenance window of Oracle. The LAST_ANALYZED column of DBA_TABLES changed, as well as LAST_DDL_TIME on DBA_OBJECTS. I did not expect neither I see nowhere else complaining about this interference between the maintenance windows and a export data pump. Strange!

To avoid any problem in the future we decided to change the maintenance window time and lenght.
On Oracle 11g and 12c there is a window per day. So to change lets say to 19:00 and having a duration of 2 hours you do:

EXECUTE DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE('MONDAY_WINDOW','repeat_interval','freq=daily;byday=MON;byhour=19;byminute=0; bysecond=0');
EXECUTE DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE('MONDAY_WINDOW',attribute => 'DURATION',value     => numtodsinterval(2, 'hour'));
EXECUTE DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE('TUESDAY_WINDOW','repeat_interval','freq=daily;byday=TUE;byhour=19;byminute=0; bysecond=0');
EXECUTE DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE('TUESDAY_WINDOW',attribute => 'DURATION',value     => numtodsinterval(2, 'hour'));
EXECUTE DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE('WEDNESDAY_WINDOW','repeat_interval','freq=daily;byday=WED;byhour=19;byminute=0; bysecond=0');
EXECUTE DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE('WEDNESDAY_WINDOW',attribute => 'DURATION',value     => numtodsinterval(2, 'hour'));
EXECUTE DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE('THURSDAY_WINDOW','repeat_interval','freq=daily;byday=THU;byhour=19;byminute=0; bysecond=0');
EXECUTE DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE('THURSDAY_WINDOW',attribute => 'DURATION',value     => numtodsinterval(2, 'hour'));
EXECUTE DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE('FRIDAY_WINDOW','repeat_interval','freq=daily;byday=FRI;byhour=19;byminute=0; bysecond=0');
EXECUTE DBMS_SCHEDULER.SET_ATTRIBUTE('FRIDAY_WINDOW',attribute => 'DURATION',value     => numtodsinterval(2, 'hour'));

Goldengate initial load checks

These days I’m performing a near zero downtime upgrade of Oracle database from 10.2.0.4-32bit to 12.1.0.2-64bit. Both on Windows, source is 2003 and target 2012.

More information can be seen at the presentation here (not yet posted).

Now I want to call your attention to the initial load. There are a small but important checklist to follow to avoid bad surprises. On a proof-of-concept, using a source database without activity you are likely not to find any problem. If the source database is actively used by dozens of users, then attention!

I will not repeat all steps described at the Goldengate Documentation. These are the just the main reminders for a successful initial load.

Before starting the extract:
1. Supplemental log groups. In case using table level loggroups (source Oracle DB <= 11.2.0.3) – Check that all tables have log groups:

select owner,table_name from dba_tables where owner in ('<USER1>','<USER2>','<USER3>')
minus
select owner,table_name from dba_log_groups where owner in ('<USER1>','<USER2>','<USER3>');

Reason: on a active database, if the table is locked by some user, Goldengate will simply skip to add the log group (in fact, it gets “ORA-00054: resource busy and acquire with NOWAIT specified or timeout expired” but in the middle of adding the ADD TRANDATA command you will likely skip the error).

Note: if there is DDL replication, make sure that a log group is always created when a new table is created. The schema level log group should solve this problem.

After starting the extract
2. Goldengate only captures transactions that begin after the extract starts:

2015-03-31 08_27_16-16 Instantiating Oracle GoldenGate with an Initial Load (12c (12.1.2))

Extract of Goldengate 12c documentation.

So you need to find the time Extract started:

GGSCI> info extract E_*

And make sure that all transactions started after that time:

select b.inst_id, b.sid, b.serial#,b.username,b.machine ,b.status,b.prev_sql_id,c.sql_text,d.object_id,e.object_name,
a.start_time,to_char(b.logon_time,'MM/DD/YY HH24:MI:SS') logon_time
from    gv$transaction a, gv$session b , gv$sql c, v$locked_object d, all_objects e
where a.inst_id = b.inst_id
and a.ses_addr = b.SADDR
and b.prev_sql_addr = c.address(+)
and b.prev_hash_value = c.hash_value(+)
and b.prev_child_number = c.child_number(+)
and b.inst_id = c.inst_id(+)
and b.prev_sql_id=c.sql_id
and d.object_id=e.object_id
and d.session_id=b.sid(+);

The previous piece of SQL not only shows the starting time of the transaction, but also shows the user and machine holding that transaction open. It is useful to identify the person and contact her instead of just killing the session. ūüôā

3. Get the current SCN and performing the consistent export of the database.

alter session set nls_date_format='DD.MM.YYYY HH24:MI:SS';
col current_scn for 99999999999999999
select sysdate, current_scn from v$database;

expdp DIRECTORY=migration DUMPFILE=expdp_MIGRATION_%U.dmp LOGFILE=expdp_MIGRATION.log parallel=8 filesize=5G flashback_scn=<previous-scn> SCHEMAS='<USER1>','<USER2>','<USER3>'

4. On the replicat side, just to assure it does not start at the wrong SCN, it is better you do not have on the manager configuration the parameter:

AUTOSTART ER *

Datapump elapsed time on 11.2.0.4

Data-Pump-for-OracleToday I notice a small difference when you export/import using Datapump and you connect to a 11.2.0.4 database: there is the elapsed time at the end.

Both times I was using the binary from Oracle 11.2.0.4:

Export: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on Sun Mar 22 21:07:25 2015

But the output is slight different at the end of the job:

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
...
Job "RMAN"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01" successfully completed at Sun Mar 22 21:10:07 2015 elapsed 0 00:02:21

Or:

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production
...
Job "RMAN"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_03" successfully completed at 21:07:43

 


Oracle January 2015 CPU – quick and dirty install on 11.2.0.4 and 12.1.0.2 1

While one should always read the documentation accompanying the patches, the new January 2015 (and in some extend also October 2014) are more complex to install with a java and a db components.

If you are single instance database (no RAC) and either 11.2.0.4 or 12.1.0.2 here are the quick summary of the installation. Tested on Linux and Solaris SPARC:

Oracle 12.1.0.2 – January 2015 CPU installation

Bundle 12.1.0.2 – Patch 20132434

  • Patch 19769480 – Database Patch Set Update 12.1.0.2.2 (Jan2015) –> RAC-Rolling Installable
  • Patch 19877336 – Oracle JavaVM Component 12.1.0.2.2 Database PSU (JAN2015) –> Non RAC-Rolling Installable
export PATCH_LOC="/tmp"

1. Download + Upgrade OPatch

unzip ${PATCH_LOC}/p6880880_121010_Linux-x86-64.zip -d $ORACLE_HOME

2. Stop database+listeners+agent

3. Apply DB PSU (19769480) but do NOT run DB PSU post install steps

cd ${PATCH_LOC}
unzip p2*
cd 2*
cd 19769480/
$ORACLE_HOME/OPatch/opatch apply

3. Apply OJVM PSU patch

cd ../19877336/
$ORACLE_HOME/OPatch/opatch apply

4. Restart database

5. Run post install steps

cd $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch
./datapatch -verbose

 

Oracle 11.2.0.4 – January 2015 CPU installation

 

Bundle 11.2.0.4 – Patch 20132517

  • Patch 19854503 – Database Security Patch Update 11.2.0.4.0 (CPUJAN2015) –> RAC-Rolling Installable
  • Patch 19877440 – Oracle JavaVM Component 11.2.0.4.2 Database PSU (JAN2015) –> Non RAC-Rolling Installable
export PATCH_LOC="/tmp"
cd ${PATCH_LOC}
unzip p20132517_112040_Linux-x86-64.zip
cd 2*

1. Shutdown databases and services
2. Apply DB PSU (19854503) but do NOT run DB PSU post install steps

cd 19854503
$ORACLE_HOME/OPatch/opatch napply -skip_subset -skip_duplicate

3. Apply OJVM PSU patch

cd ../19877440/
$ORACLE_HOME/OPatch/opatch apply

4. For 11.2.0.3 and 11.2.0.4 run the OJVM PSU post install steps followed by the DB PSU (or equivalent) post install steps.

cd $ORACLE_HOME/sqlpatch/19877440
sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> startup upgrade
SQL> @postinstall.sql
SQL> shutdown immediate
SQL> exit;
cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin
$ sqlplus / as sysdba
SQL> startup
SQL> @catbundle.sql cpu apply
SQL> @utlrp.sql
SQL> exit;